Citra is a registered trademark since 2007. Citra Brand hops have fairly high alpha acids and total oil contents with a low percentage of cohumulone content and imparts interesting citrus and tropical fruit characters to beer.
For more information, you can read the Wikipedia article on the Citra brand.
In answer to part of your question, there are probably no other reasons for large-scale cultivation of hops in the 8th century other than for brewing. While hops were used in medicine, the major national herbals of Anglo-Saxon England don't mention them. That we have strong references in early 8th century England (see "Anglo-Saxon Food and Drink" by Ann ...
Dry hopping is a brewing technique which specifies when hops are added to a beer.
In particular, "normal" hopping is when you add hops while boiling the wort. Depending on how much time you are into the boil, this may add more bitterness or more aroma.
Dry hopping, on the other hand, is when you add hops after the boil is done, usually in a fermentation ...
Getting a full list would always be tough as new varieties are being developed all the time. Looking at the above list I see a couple of varieties that have been out a couple of years that are missing (Mosaic for example).
Yakima Chief Hop Union has a pretty up to date list and since they deal in selling hops it probably would be a good source of the latest ...
I looked through my beer books and I couldn't find a single word that describes the addition of hops. Generally brewers describe the addition of hops based on their intended flavoring. Bittering additions or aroma additions. There are a variety of additions depending on timing. Here is a partial list:
First Wort Hopping - Added before the wort is boiled
None, the hops are added to provide a bitter flavour and because they have an antibiotic property that favours yeast over other microorganisms.
The hops are filtered out in the brewing process so there is no calorific gain.
In a typical UK beer recipe the hops are typically 1% of the dry ingredients.
International bittering units (IBU) measure the bitterness of different beer styles. IPAs have a wide range, and they're typically higher on the scale. If you can find the IBU of a beer you want to try (on Untappd, on the bottle, or some bars make this information available), you can compare it to other beers that you like to determine if it might be too ...
This is a great question, I'm still learning but here's what I've tried:
Single hop beers.
I'm in the UK but here's what I've managed to get in the past
Mikkeller single hop series
IPA is dead by BrewDog
Arbor often do single hop beers
Your mileage may vary but if you keep your eye out, hopefully you'll find a local brewer doing this kind of thing.
Hop Union has an "Aroma Wheel" that can help with scent:
Also look at the Hop Variety page to get a little more information.
The thing to remember is scent doesn't always translate to taste, especially with hoppy beers such as IPA's after the beer has aged a bit. To get the taste you really need to try a beer made only with that hop (my opinion) to see ...
According to Wikipedia, hops can be used in other beverages.
The only major commercial use for hops is in beer, although hops are also an ingredient in Julmust, a carbonated beverage similar to soda that is popular in Sweden during December, as well as Malta, a Latin American soft drink. Hops are sometimes added to some varieties of kvass. They are also ...
I feel like this is a pretty opinion based question, especially with IPAs being so "in" right now. Ignoring the taste of hoppiness, which is different from bitterness (dear Bob that myth needs to die), there's a limit to how much bitterness we humans can actually perceive. Past about 100 IBUs the tongue straight up can't tell that there are any more. Now ...
You can buy a small selection of a few hops and a 6 or 12 pack of bud light or coors light. Pop the tops, toss in a few hops, re-cap and mark what hop is in each. Wait a day or two and then taste. This will highlight the aroma and some of the upfront flavors of the hop more than it's bitterness and will get you familiar with that hop variety. This does ...
First off, I don't know if this story is in fact true, but I can shed some light on the subject which would indicate that it is certainly plausible.
Hops were first used to flavor beer around 1000 A.D., starting in Germany. Until this time beer was flavored with a mix of herbs and spices called "gruit" which was taxed (generally by either the government ...
Some breweries use a hop "Torpedo", where the beer is forced through a chamber containing the desired aroma hops:
You probably don't need one that big, though.
The malt is providing the sweetness and the hops are providing the bitterness plus the lingering flavour.
Depending on what type malted grains the beer is brewed will effect its sweetness. This is due to how much fermentatble sugar can be extracted from the grains, any non-fermentable sugars will stay in the beer and provide effect how the beer sweetness.
Spent hops (hops dumped from a brew kettle) may cause hyperthermia in dogs in addition to raw hops, so you should never dump them as fertilizer in an area accessible to dogs. Source: Vet Learn web site
Beer is bad for dogs (and cats!) due to the alcohol. I don't know about the hops, but I wouldn't risk it with my pets. It seems like someone sneaking booze ...
I haven't looked for a full toxicology report (not that I would be able to understand it), but this Wikipedia article mentions that hops causes hyperthermia and may cause death.
I personally do not think that a sip of beer, especially of the standard lagers, will cause any major problems, but I prefer to err on the side of safety when it comes to my pets.
In terms of bitterness vs hoppiness, with the 3 stages in the process where hops are generally added, only the final stage gives distinct hoppiness (as opposed to bitterness) as the hops aren't in the mix long enough for heat to break down the oils and flavour.
The reason why there are so many types of hops used, in varying concentrations, at various stages ...
As the old saying goes, "There's no accounting for taste." So, objectively, no, there is no such thing as too hoppy as long as some enjoy them. There certainly are beers that are so bitter that they have very limited appeal and that can completely drown out other flavors rending not only the beer itself a one-note show, but eliminates the taste from ...
There are literally dozens of different varieties of hops, in much the same way there are dozens of different breeds of dogs. Just as a Chihuaua and a Great Dane are both Canis Lupus, a Galena Hop and a Goldings Hop are bot Humulus Lupulus, separated by vastly different lineages and genetics. New hop varieties are often developed by selective ...
List of ibu's:
Kronenbourg 1664: 20
San Miguel: 12
The difference in IBU seems to come from the type of beer, Heineken en Becks are quite similar european lagers with the same ingredients(barly, yeast water and hops) while Corona uses corn and rice with much les hops.
Grohlier already gave a good ...
Finding a compiled list of common-marketplace lagers is probably not going to happen unless someone has made a specific list like this.
Generally, you would just search "SPECIFIC BEER IBU" and either the result or website where you can find the result would populate. You can also look at homebrewer clone-recipe sites like this that give you the IBUs and ...
This discussion would be more suitable in the homebrew stack as Andrew said, but I will answer it anyway.
You are on the right track, making a simple pilsner recipe will show you the effects of the malt, yeast, water and hops.
There is a technique called SMASH (single malt, single hops), which is widely used to "test" the effect of a new ingredient. It is ...
The short answer is No.
Ian Horney in "A History of Beer and Brewing" makes this claim. But it is not backed up by evidence. Henry VIII's beer brewer John Pope was given special dispensation to hire more than four foreign workers for the household brewery. So at least Henry VIII's court brewed their own beer.
The various laws are being used to ...
Water does a fair job of dissolving the aromatic compounds in hops but the resinous or oily compounds will dissolve better in ethanol. To get a really clean extract of hops, steep fresh or dry hops in vodka or neutral grain spirits, then filter and dilute with water for tasting. The straight extract can be overwhelming. A really good extract will be a milky ...
From what I understand, pale ale is not as hoppy as India pale ale. So, quantity of hops in and IBU of IPA’s will be generally higher compared to pale ales. American pale ales use American hops instead of traditionally popular European hops.
Try to make a tea out of the hops.
Put a flower or a pellet in a mug,
Pour boiling water over it,
Wait for 10 minutes,
Try to get hold of some samples of hops at local or regional (home)brewers.
Most likely they will be happy to help out a fellow brewer.
Independently of any ingredients like hops and barley, beer and any other beverage or food containing alcohol is SUPER BAD for your dog.
A few drops licked from the floor may not be a problem for a 70 pound dog (like mine) but in greater concentrations such as a cup or bowl it will cause your dog's liver to fail killing him/her in a short period of time.
The answer is no, there is not an objective measurement of "too hoppy". It is entirely preferential. You could however state that a beer is too hoppy to match a given style, for example a Berliner Weisse with a bitterness of 70 IBUs would be considered imbalanced for the style and would occupy it's own experimental category.