How we can classify tannins used in making of different wines like white wine and red wine on the basis of wood tannins and grape tannins?
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What are tannins in wine?
Tannins refer to the diverse group of chemical compounds in wine that can affect the color, aging ability and texture of the wine. While tannins cannot be smelled or tasted, they can be perceived during wine tasting by the tactile drying sensation and sense of bitterness that they can leave in the mouth. This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva. In food and wine pairing, foods that are high in proteins (such as red meat) are often paired with tannic wines to minimize the astringency of tannins. However, many wine drinkers find the perception of tannins to be a positive trait—especially as it relates to mouth feel. The management of tannins in the winemaking process is a key component in the resulting quality.
Tannins are found in the skin, stems, and seeds of wine grapes but can also be introduced to the wine through the use of oak barrels and chips or with the addition of tannin powder. The natural tannins found in grapes are known as proanthocyanidins due to their ability to release red anthocyanin pigments when they are heated in an acidic solution. Grape extracts are mainly rich in monomers and small oligomers (mean degree of polymerization <8). Grape seed extracts contain three monomers (catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate) and procyanidin oligomers. Grape skin extracts contain four monomers (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin), as well as procyanidins and prodelphinidins oligomers. The tannins are formed by enzymes during metabolic processes of the grapevine. The amount of tannins found naturally in grapes varies depending on the variety with Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo, Syrah and Tannat being 4 of the most tannic grape varieties. The reaction of tannins and anthocyanins with the phenolic compound catechins creates another class of tannins known as pigmented tannins which influence the color of red wine. Commercial preparations of tannins, known as enological tannins, made from oak wood, grape seed and skin, plant gall, chestnut, quebracho, gambier and myrobalan fruits, can be added at different stages of the wine production to improve color durability. The tannins derived from oak influence are known as "hydrolysable tannins" being created from the ellagic and gallic acid found in the wood.
In the vineyards, there is also a growing distinction being made between "ripe" and "unripe" tannins present in the grape. This "physiological ripeness", which is roughly determined by tasting the grapes off the vines, is being used along with sugar levels as a determination of when to harvest. The idea is that "riper" tannins will taste softer but still impart some of the texture components found favorable in wine. In winemaking, the amount of the time that the must spends in contact with the grape skins, stems and seeds will influence the amount of tannins that are present in the wine with wines subjected to longer maceration period having more tannin extract. Following harvest, stems are normally picked out and discarded prior to fermentation but some winemakers may intentionally leave in a few stems for varieties low in tannins (like Pinot noir) in order to increase the tannic extract in the wine. If there is an excess in the amount of tannins in the wine, winemakers can use various fining agents like albumin, casein and gelatin that can bind to tannins molecule and precipitate them out as sediments. As a wine ages, tannins will form long polymerized chains which come across to a taster as "softer" and less tannic. This process can be accelerated by exposing the wine to oxygen, which oxidize tannins to quinone-like compounds that are polymerization-prone. The winemaking technique of micro-oxygenation and decanting wine use oxygen to partially mimic the effect of aging on tannins
A study in wine production and consumption has shown that tannins, in the form of proanthocyanidins, have a beneficial effect on vascular health. The study showed that tannins suppressed production of the peptide responsible for hardening arteries. To support their findings, the study also points out that wines from the regions of southwest France and Sardinia are particularly rich in proanthocyanidins, and that these regions also produce populations with longer life spans.
Reactions of tannins with the phenolic compound anthocyanidins creates another class of tannins known as pigmented tannins which influences the color of red wine. - Phenolic content in wine