Assuming we're comparing equivalent amounts of alcohol, do certain beers get you inebriated more quickly or slowly? Does the amount of fizz make a difference?
The process of becoming drunk involves becoming dehydrated. So the higher the ABV, and less water you're taking on, the faster you'll feel the effects.
This is why shots get you drunk very quickly: there is little to no extra water in the mix. Other ingredients can add to this affect, and as I've personally noticed, some beers can produce very different "drunk experiences" than others - just like being drunk off wine, beer, shots, or mixed drinks can produce different results.
So, absolutely if you drank half a beer with twice the ABV while your friend drank 1 beer with half the ABV, you'd probably feel drunk faster than him. Assuming you're drinking at the same pace. Less water.
Absolutely, it depends on the ABV like any other alcoholic beverage. You can drink Natty-lights all night like college kids or you can get your hands on one of these bad boys, at 67.5% abv. I highly doubt carbonation has anything to do with it.
Personally, I prefer to drink beer for the taste, not to get drunk. So I'll experiment among many different craft brews.
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Started answering before I saw your edit. I'll keep this up for education's sake.