Brew York (which is one of the foremost local news sites for Beer Enthusiasts in NYC) wrote up a really great guide to NYC's Beer Culture for Super Bowl visitors last week.
The strongest picks, if I had to rattle them off myself, would be Brooklyn Brewery for someplace with some serious scale, Singlecut's taproom in Astoria for some great hoppy lagers and the best in-brewery drinking experience in town, and Peekskill Brewery and Barrier Brewery if you're willing to spend 30 minutes on a commuter rail line (Metro North or LIRR respectively), for two of the most daring and inventive brewers in the region.
Really though, even though NYC has a number of local breweries, it isn't a great place for drinking at the source - beer culture in the city, while heavily local, is largely centered around a number of fantastic bars; Check out Torst, Barcade, Spuyten Duyvil, Alewife, The Pony Bar, Blind Tiger, the Ginger Man, Burp Castle, or any of the tons and tons of other great venues.
The Craft Beer New York app for both major smartphone platforms is also excellent, with up to date listings on new bar and brewery openings, local events, limited releases, and more. Easily worth a few bucks for any serious enthusiast.