It's a tough question. When I was getting into craft beer it was an organic process: I'd try something new, see if I liked it, then I'd try something else, and the process would continue.
Eventually my exploration became intentional: I wasn't that familiar with different styles, I just tried as many new beers as I could, and eventually found my niche.
In retrospect, if I could do it all over again with some guidance I'd want to have some understanding of styles. In general you have your dark ales stouts/porters/imperials, your lights standard lager/pilsner, your pale ales, your wheat ales, some fruity beers, some spiced beers, and whatever I'm missing.
So what you could do to start is do some research and find a good example of 4-5 different styles that interest you and that are available locally, and get an idea of which type of beer you like. After you figure out the type of beer you're interested in you could buy more examples of those styles and find which ones you like best.
A few notes that I'd keep in mind though:
- Going from generic drinks to more 'complex' beers can be a challenge to the taste buds. At first try you might find some beers off putting, but after a while they grow on you. For that reason it'd also be smart to ease into beers with heavier flavour, until you're ready to approach them with an open mind and a palate that's used to new flavours. Try some balanced IPAs, wheat ales, some pilsners, maybe something sweet if you like first, go from there.
- I've always found the beer I drink changes with the seasos. What goes best in cold weather isn't the same thing that goes best in warm weather. So that could affect your judgement of what you try