Yes. Taste is really smell, and different glasses can capture aromas differently. Furthermore, different aromas may be more or less present dependent upon temperature, and a glass may be crafted to be held a particular way (gathering more or less heat from your hand). The same is true for wine glasses.
That said, how much of a difference it makes to you is what's important. Going back to the wine comparison, I can sometimes tell the difference between different glasses, but not consistently. So it's not the most important thing.
Now that that's said, there has been some informal, perhaps less than perfectly scientific studies, including a blind test. Beer advocate provides some more detailed information. Some of my local bars carry stemware for specific European beers, and I know of one stateside brewery, Black Shirt Brewing in Denver, which really wants you to stick your nose up in it (to good effect, in my experience).