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For example, from the label of Uinta's Crooked Line Labyrinth Black Ale:

Flavors are enhanced when served cool, not frigid.

How does serving temperature affect the taste of beers? By "How?" I'm asking more about its effects on flavor, e.g. hoppiness, crispness, the aftertaste, etc. more so than the chemical process.* That is, what flavors become pronounced or dulled with the changing of temperature?

There's a question, What temperature should I serve my beer?, where an answerer states, for example, that letting darker beers warm up brings out new flavors—but what flavors? It doesn't seem to be the case that cooling kills all desirable flavors in general—for example for pilsners, lagers, and hefeweizens, "letting them get warm changes their flavor profile for the worse" (from the same answer).

* Knowing the chemical process, e.g. how certain elements or ingredients react or suspend differently according to temperature, would be very interesting indeed, but it seems difficult to find solid literature / knowledge on the subject.

4

There is a blog post which also cites this article discussing the chemical effects of cooling and dilution on whiskey.

The post concluded that the mix of dilution and cooling causes the alcohol to become soluble, which releases the flavour.

Ethanol becomes more soluble when whiskey is diluted and cooled, this promotes release of flavour molecules

I think this theory is applicable to beer, but with a few caveats; firstly, beer is already diluted and doesn't need any more water added; secondly, the alcohol content of beer is much lower than that of whiskey, so not as much cooling would be required.

3

There are a few components to the interaction between flavor and temperature, but one key one is simply that cold numbs your tongue. At least, extreme cold (e.g. "cold as the rockies").

As such, overly cold beer will dull any strong flavor (hoppiness, bitterness, etc) and hide weaker ones.

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